English philosopher, statesman, scientist, lawyer, jurist, author and pioneer of the scientific method. Although his political career ended in disgrace, he remained extremely influential through his works, especially essays and aphorisms pdf philosophical advocate and practitioner of the scientific method during the scientific revolution. His demand for a planned procedure of investigating all things natural marked a new turn in the rhetorical and theoretical framework for science, much of which still surrounds conceptions of proper methodology today. He proposed, at his time, a great reformation of all process of knowledge for the advancement of learning divine and human.
For Bacon, this reformation would lead to a great advancement in science and a progeny of new inventions that would relieve mankind’s miseries and needs. Instauration, he stated his view that the restoration of science was part of the “partial returning of mankind to the state it lived before the fall”, restoring its dominion over creation, while religion and faith would partially restore mankind’s original state of innocence and purity. He said that men should confine the sense within the limits of duty in respect to things divine, while not falling in the opposite error which would be to think that inquisition of nature is forbidden by divine law. Another admonition was concerning the ends of science: that mankind should seek knowledge not for pleasure, contention, superiority over others, profit, fame, or power, but for the benefit and use of life, and that they perfect and govern it in charity. Regarding faith, in “De Augmentis”, he wrote that “the more discordant, therefore, and incredible, the divine mystery is, the more honour is shown to God in believing it, and the nobler is the victory of faith. But superstition hath been the confusion of many states, and bringeth in a new primum mobile, that ravisheth all the spheres of government”. God by his spirit, he is a base and ignoble creature.
God’s Will and science as the contemplation of God’s Power. Men have sought to make a world from their own conception and to draw from their own minds all the material which they employed, but if, instead of doing so, they had consulted experience and observation, they would have the facts and not opinions to reason about, and might have ultimately arrived at the knowledge of the laws which govern the material world. The Latin inscription is from Daniel 12:4: “Multi pertransibunt et augebitur scientia. Many shall go to and fro and knowledge shall be increased. 1620 publication: “Many shall go to and fro and knowledge shall be increased.
Through this inscription, Bacon draws a parallel between the Age of Exploration and the Scientific Revolution. Since Bacon’s ideal was widespread revolution of the common method of scientific inquiry, there had to be some way by which his method could become widespread. While in office under Queen Elizabeth, he even advocated for the employment of a minister for science and technology, a position that was never realised. While Bacon was a strong advocate for state involvement in scientific inquiry, he also felt that his general method should be applied directly to the functioning of the state as well. For Bacon, matters of policy were inseparable from philosophy and science.
Bacon recognised the repetitive nature of history, and sought to correct it by making the future direction of government more rational. To make future civil history more linear and achieve real progress, he felt that methods of the past and experiences of the present should be examined together to determine the best ways by which to go about civil discourse. Stand in the ancient ways, but look also into present experience to see whether in the light of this experience ancient ways are right. In short, he wanted his method of progress building on progress in natural philosophy to be integrated into England’s political theory. According to author Nieves Mathews, the promoters of the French Reformation misrepresented Bacon by deliberately mistranslating and editing his writings to suit their anti-religious and materialistic concepts, which action would have carried a highly influential negative effect on his reputation. Francis Bacon published in 1620.