This is a good article. Follow the link for more information. Among the most important literature in the history of Indian essay on gautam buddha in telugu and culture, the Upanishads played an important role in the development of spiritual ideas in ancient India, marking a transition from Vedic ritualism to new ideas and institutions. Of all Vedic literature, the Upanishads alone are widely known, and their central ideas are at the spiritual core of Hindus.
1st-millennium BCE through about 15th-century CE. With the translation of the Upanishads in the early 19th century they also started to attract attention from a western audience. Upanishads and called it “the production of the highest human wisdom”. Modern era Indologists have discussed the similarities between the fundamental concepts in the Upanishads and major western philosophers. Other dictionary meanings include “esoteric doctrine” and “secret doctrine”. According to native authorities, Upanishad means setting to rest ignorance by revealing the knowledge of the supreme spirit.
The word appears in the verses of many Upanishads, such as the fourth verse of the 13th volume in first chapter of the Chandogya Upanishad. Patrick Olivelle translates it as “hidden connections”. The authorship of most Upanishads is uncertain and unknown. Radhakrishnan states, “almost all the early literature of India was anonymous, we do not know the names of the authors of the Upanishads”. Women, such as Maitreyi and Gargi participate in the dialogues and are also credited in the early Upanishads. There are some exceptions to the anonymous tradition of the Upanishads. The existing texts are believed to be the work of many authors.
Scholars are uncertain about when the Upanishads were composed. Some scholars have tried to analyse similarities between Hindu Upanishads and Buddhist literature to establish chronology for the Upanishads. They are edited texts, some of whose sources are much older than others. 7th to 6th centuries BCE, give or take a century or so. Buddhist and can be assigned to the 6th to 5th centuries BCE. The Kena is the oldest of the verse Upanisads followed by probably the Katha, Isa, Svetasvatara, and Mundaka.
All these Upanisads were composed probably in the last few centuries BCE. The two late prose Upanisads, the Prasna and the Mandukya, cannot be much older than the beginning of the common era. Stephen Phillips places the early Upanishads in the 800 to 300 BCE range. He summarizes the current Indological opinion to be that the Brhadaranyaka, Chandogya, Isha, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Kena, Katha, Mundaka, and Prasna Upanishads are all pre-Buddhist and pre-Jain, while Svetasvatara and Mandukya overlap with the earliest Buddhist and Jain literature. The later Upanishads, numbering about 95, also called minor Upanishads, are dated from the late 1st-millennium BCE to mid 2nd-millennium CE.