A Research Guide for Students » Chapter 4. Works cites, References or Do you underline the title of your essay? What is an Annotated Bibliography?
A title page is not essential for a research paper unless specifically requested by your teacher. In case of conflict, you should always follow guidelines set down by your teacher. Then under your name, on separate lines, double-spaced, and flushed against the left margin, type your teacher’s name, your course code, and the date. If your teacher prefers the first page of your essay not be numbered, you will begin numbering with page 2. On a new line, center the title of your essay.
If you have a long title, double-space between lines of the title. Do not type your title all in capital letters. Do not put quotations marks before and after the title. Do not underline the title, or put a period at the end of the title.
Proper names of people and places as well as important words should be capitalized in the title, but prepositions and conjunctions are normally shown in lower case letters, e. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. The same rule applies to headings and subheadings as well. Follow the same capitalization rules for acronyms as you normally would in writing a text of the essay, e.
When using an acronym, especially an uncommon one, you must indicate what the letters stand for at the first occurrence in your essay. If a Title Page is a requirement for your assignment, begin on a new page. Use a format preferred by your teacher. It is not necessary to describe or explain the title page by adding the words: Title, Course Code, To, From, or Due Date. Minimal information providing simple identification is adequate. Page numbers must be written in Arabic numerals. Do not add anything fancy to decorate a page number.
Remember, there is no period after the page number. Electronic submission of documents is becoming more common as e-mail is being used widely. This system will facilitate the citation of sources by identifying a specific paragraph for reference very quickly. Although it is not wrong to leave two spaces after a period, it is quite acceptable nowadays to leave only one space after each punctuation mark.
For details on how to place tables, illustrations, figures, musical notations, labels, captions, etc. Use the width of your thumb as a rough guide. Your instructor may give you a choice to indent or not to indent your paragraphs. No matter whichever one you choose to use, you must be consistent throughout your essay.
If you are NOT indenting, you will start each paragraph flush to the left margin. It is essential that you double-space between lines and quadruple-space between paragraphs. When paragraphs are not indented, it is difficult for a reader to see where a new paragraph begins, hence quadruple-space is called for between paragraphs. Do not right justify your entire essay and do not automatically format hyphens if you are using a word processor to type your essay. Left justify or justify your essay and type in the hyphens yourself where needed.
Left justification is preferred as it will not leave big gaps between words. When used within the text of your paper, titles of all full-length works such as novels, plays, or books, should be underlined, e. Put in quotation marks titles of shorter works, such as newspaper, journal, and magazine articles, chapters of books or essays, e. Giving Back to the Earth: Western Helps Make a Difference in India. And Now for Something Completely Different: A Hedgehog Hospital.
Look it up in a dictionary whenever you are not sure whether a word is being used as a preposition, a conjunction, a noun, a verb, or an adverb. For complicated details on how to cite titles and quotations within titles, sacred texts, shortened titles, exceptions to the rule, etc. DO NOT WRITE OR TYPE EVERYTHING ALL IN CAPITAL LETTERS EVEN THOUGH THIS SAVES YOU TIME AND EFFORT NOT TO HAVE TO USE THE SHIFT KEY REPEATEDLY OR TO HAVE TO FIGURE OUT WHEN OR WHEN NOT TO USE CAPITAL LETTERS. SOME PEOPLE WRITE EVERYTHING IN CAPITAL LETTERS BECAUSE THEY HAD NEVER LEARNED TO WRITE SENTENCES IN UPPER AND LOWER-CASE LETTERS PROPERLY WHEN THEY WERE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. OTHER PEOPLE WRITE ALL IN CAPITAL LETTERS BECAUSE THEY WANT TO MAKE WHAT THEY WRITE APPEAR IMPORTANT.
READING A PAPER ALL WRITTEN IN CAPITAL LETTERS,ESPECIALLY ONE WITHOUT SPACES AFTER PUNCTUATION MARKS,SLOWS DOWN READING SPEED AND MAY EVEN REDUCE READER COMPREHENSION,BESIDES BEING EXTREMELY ANNOYING TO THE READER. REMEMBER THAT THE PURPOSE OF WRITING ANYTHING IS TO COMMUNICATE. MOST OF US ARE NOT CONDITIONED TO READ ALL TEXT IN CAPITAL LETTERS. WORD PROCESSORS ALSO TREAT WORDS STUCK TOGETHER WITHOUT SPACES AS SINGLE WORDS CAUSING OTHER PROBLEMS. A short essay or research paper requires no Table of Contents. If your written report or research paper is extremely long, it may be helpful to include a Table of Contents showing the page number where each section begins.